FUSION SPLICING / FIBER TERMINATION


All fibres of OF cables will be terminated on Fibre Management System (FMS) at each regenerator (REG) or ADM (add drop multiplexer) location. Installation of FMS is done according to the manufacturer's specification. End to End testing can be carried out from the FMS to FMS using the connectors who are mounted on the FMS.













​​Splicing is done using a good quality splicing machine. Splice loss per joint will be minimum and would not be more than 0.07 dB. In no case average splice loss per link will be more than 0.06 dB x No. of splices. At least 0.6 M to 0.8 M fibre would be stored in cable tray. Fibre would be neatly coiled without kinks.


Minimum bending radius of 80mm would be ensured, Joint closure would be sealed properly before it is taken out of the controlled environment free from dust particles and air-conditioned splicing van.


  Route Survey and design


The entire route is surveyed for laying of Optical Fibre Cables for the following inputs:
-        RoW demarcation
-        ​Soil strata
-        ​Existing Underground utilities
-        Road / Rail / Bridge / River / Canal Crossings
-        ​BOQ Estimation
-        ​Any other criticalities

​  Preparation of BOQ


On the basis of survey details an estimated BOQ is prepared and submitted to get the approval from the Customer.


  ​RoW Permissions


A Single Line Diagram is made, to determine jurisdictions for the statutory permissions such as:
-        State Highways​
-       ​ Railways
-        ​Roads & Buildings Departments
-        ​Municipal corporations
-        ​Panchayats
-        ​Irrigation department
-        ​National highway Authority
-        ​Cantonments

  ​Trenching, ducting and backfilling

         


I N D I A   P R I V A T E   L I M I T E D

INTEGRATED INFOSOLUTIONS


  CONSTRUCTION / INSTALLATION OF MANHOLES


Manholes are provided at every proposed and future joint location to house Joint Box and Optical Fibre cable service loops. In general, there are three types of manholes, depending upon the joint location and come in various sizes depending upon the utility. Where the manholes are placed on the footpath or where heavy vehicular movement is not expected, manhole with brick masonry wall are constructed. However, in case the manhole is required to be constructed at the middle of the road or where heavy vehicular movement is expected, the manhole shall necessarily be of RCC construction.

Such manholes consists of  pre cast RCC Cylindrical pipe with minimum wall thickness of 80mm and include 8mm or  more steel reinforcement. The base of manhole in all types are minimum 80mm thick PCC and minimum internal diameter is 1000 mm. Minimum height of the manhole, where joint boxes are to be kept, is 1100mm. Manholes for keeping service loops of OFC must have a minimum height of 400mm. The cover of each type of Manhole is pre cast RCC with minimum 50mm thickness and comes with suitable arrangement for lifting. The top of manhole is always flushed with the ground level.


  ​OPEN TRENCHING


Outside the city limits trench will normally follow boundary of roadside land. However, where road side land is full of borrow pits or forestation, or when cable is to be laid along Culverts / bridges or cross-streams, trench may be made closer to road edge or in some cases, over embankment or shoulder of the road.

​Line up of trench would be such that HDPE duct(s) will be laid in straight line, both laterally as well as vertically except at locations where it has to necessarily take a bend because of change in alignment or gradient of trench. Minimum radius of two meters will be maintained, where bends are necessitated.

Ducts will be laid in a flat bottom trench, free from stones, and sharp edged debris. The duct would be placed in trench as straight as possible, however at bends horizontal and vertical minimum bending radius for duct would be maintained as per advised specifications. Ducts will be laid preferably using dispenser designed for it. Our supervisor will ensure that Duct laid is free from twist and collapsed portion of Ducts. Any such portion will be rectified before backfilling by using couplers. Ends of ducts will always be closed with end plugs to avoid ingress of mud, water or dust. We ensure HDPE ducts are clear of sand, dust or any other particles, which would cause obstruction in lying of cable.

​Prior to aligning the ducts for jointing, each length of the HDPE ducts will be thoroughly cleaned to remove all sand, dust or any other debris that may clog, disturb or damage the optical fibre cable when it is pulled or blown at a later stage. The ducts will be joined with couplers using duct cutter & other tools and will be tightened and secured properly. The duct joint will be practically airtight to ensure smooth cable blowing using cable blowing machines.

​Laying of Gl/ RCC pipes as additional protection for the HDPE ducts at rail / road crossings, built-up area/city limits, on culverts and bridges will be done as required. Chambering or concreting around RCC/ Gl pipes as additional protection on bridges, culverts and also on stretches wherever depth of excavation is less than specified will be done.

​​Reinstatement of excavated trench will be done with proper compaction. Backfilling shall be done up to ground level and a hump of soil is made over the ground level to cater for soil settlement. Entire excavated soil will be used for back filling. Crowning will be confined over width of trench only.

  MANUAL MOLING / BORING

Manual moling (trench less digging) using GI Pipes is employed to lay the cable in the areas covered with concrete / bitumen or road crossings or area which are heavily congested or due to ROW restrictions. Pits are dug at a distance of 6 to 8 mtr in alignment with the route of trench chosen or on both sides of the road (for road crossing).

​​A hole shall be drilled horizontally at the required depth for connecting all pits. The drilling shall be done manually using GI pipes. Cables shall be laid through the hole. Each pit is watered so that the empty portion of the drilled hole, left after cable laying, is refilled with soil. Pits are rammed and restoration is undertaken. The excess earth from the site is removed to designated earth fill site.

OPTICAL FIBER CABLE CONSTRUCTION WORKS

(BACKBONE & ACCESS NETWORKS)

Integrated Infosolutions provides you with complete turnkey construction services for your LAN / MAN / WAN, NLD & intracity, broadband & basic telephony and FTTx network rollouts. Our services include customer requirement analysis, design solutions to meet specific customer needs, planning, cost estimation and implementation of optical fiber & copper cable systems. Scope of Optical Fiber Cable construction works includes the following :


  END-TO-END LINK TESTING


Link Test is carried out on entire section terminated at both ends after completion of tasks to ensure the losses are within permissible limits on all fibres.

Testing is carried out first with Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) in a bidirectional mode to ensure that the splice losses at all intermediate events are within the specified range. Next step is to measure the optical power transmitted through the entire section for which a laser source is used along with a power meter.


  DUCT INTEGRITY TEST


After backfilling, ducts shall be tested for integrity (air tightness and kink-free shape). Air tightness test is done by pressurizing 2 km duct stretches at a time. One end of duct will be closed and compressed air at 5-6kg/cm2 is sent from the other end. At about 5kg/cm2 pressure the inlet of compressed air will be closed. Fall in pressure should not be more than 50% in 1(one) hour.

​To check that duct has not collapsed or kinked a wooden cylindrical piece (shuttle) is blown into the duct with far end fitted with Flexible wire grip/stocking. The wooden shuttle should pass through duct at far end with out any obstruction and within approx. 10 minutes or less.

  CABLE BLOWING / PULLING


​The Cable will be tested before pulling/blowing to ensure continuity and also to evaluate the losses if any. Aerial Cabling At places where open trenching is not possible due to very narrow roads and due to delay in obtaining Row, this method will be adopted as a temporary solution. Cable blowing machines would be deployed along with a good compressor. Cable drum will be loaded on payoff stand & unwound from topside of the drum. Pay off stand would be placed properly so that it does not collapsed while dispensing OFC.

  HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING (HDD)


This technique is adopted where open trenching / manual  moling cannot be undertaken due to congestion or ROW restrictions.



















It involves the following activities:
-      Collect all available information regarding underground services and take necessary care to protect them
-      ​Carry out ground penetrating radar survey along the proposed cable route, if required, to identify the underground services
-      ​Guided boring / drilling technology is used
-      ​GPR result will be handed over to Concerned customer representative in soft / hard copy
-      ​The depth of boring shall be such so as to clear any underground utilities/obstacles
-      ​In Horizontal and Vertical boring, the system deployed shall be capable of going up to 10 meters below the ground level
-      ​​As far as possible cable shall be laid in drum length and cutting of cable shall be avoided
-      ​Ground penetrating Radar survey and damage to Telephone Cable and other underground services
-      ​Barricading and other safety measures are arranged as per site requirement
-      ​Consumables and all related plant & machinery are mobilized prior to commencement of work
-      ​As-built drawing in Auto-CAD with complete & accurate details is provided to the customer

​  DBC METHOD

It includes cable Laying by making groove of specified depth with floor saw machine , in asphalt / concrete roads, footpaths, pavements along the selected roads / streets and provide necessary protection to the cable laid. This technique is generally used for last mile and approach to the building compounds. Route line is marked with  synthetic enamel paint. Special care and precautions are observed for the use of diamond cutting blades.

​Accuracy of + 2 mm in width and +/- 5 mm in depth is achieved for groove cutting. Groove is cleaned by running “pushing wheel” into the groove, immediately after cutting the groove. Any loose stone/chips is removed from the groove mechanically. Cable laid is covered with Foam Rope & rubber rope. Over rubber rope , GI flat shall be inserted into the groove and remaining depth over the GI flat is Sealed in two layers.  Polymer resin with formulated aggregate is used as second layer of sealant and proper finishing is achieved. As-built drawing in Auto-CAD with complete & accurate details is provided to the customer.